This scaling transformation is characterized by a two-dimensional vector. Its coordinates define how much scaling is done in each direction. If both coordinates are equal, the scaling is uniform (isotropic) and the aspect ratio of the element is preserved (this is a homothetic transformation).
When a coordinate value is outside the [-1, 1] range, the element grows along that dimension; when inside, it shrinks. A negative value results in a point reflection in that dimension. The value
1 has no effect.
scale() function only scales in 2D. To scale in 3D, use